Bhim Rao Ambedkar “redirects here .For the 21st century politician ,see Bhim Rao Ambedkar (politician ).
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14april 1891-6december 1956), popular hihaly konown as Babasaheb ,was an Indian jurisi ,economist , politician nd social reformer who inspired the delit buddhist movement nd campaigned against social discriminationtowards untouchable s Dalits ,while also supporting the rights of women nd labour he was independent India’s first law minister ,the principal architect of the construction of India nd a founding father of the republic of India
1st minister of law and justiceIn office
15 August 1947 – September 1951President Rajendra Prasad Primester Jawaharlal NehruPreceded byPosition establishedSucceeded by Charu chandra bicwas chairman of the constitution drafting committee
29 August 1947 – 24 January 1950Labour Member, viceroy s executive Council in. office
1942–1946Preceded by Feroz Khan noon Personal detailsBornBhiwa Ramji Ambedkar
April 14, 18 Mhow central provinces British India
(now in Madhya Pradesh India Died December 6, 1956(aged 65)
Delhi IndiaResting place chaiyya bhoomi , Mumbai ,mahar ashtra India NationalityIndianPolitical party scheduled castes federation political
affiliations independent labour party , republican Spouse(s)
(m. 1906; d. 1935)
Savita Ambedkar (m. 1948)
Childrenfour son: Yashawant, Ramesh, Gangadhar & Rajaratna
a daughter: InduParents Ramji maloji Sakpal (father)
Bhimabai Ramji Sakpal (mother)Relatives Se A Mbedkar family Residence• Rajgruha,
Dadar Mumbai 26 Alipur road,
New Delhi Alma mater University of Mumbai (B.A) Columbia
University M.A.Ph.D Lo ndonSchoolof Economic (M.sc.,D.Sc.) Gray ‘s barrister-at-law
OccupationLawyer and ProfessorProfessionJurist, economist, politician, social reformer, anthropologist, author, historian, sociologist, social scientist, educationist freedom fighter, journalist, human rights activist, philosopher Known for Dalit rights movement,Construction of India, Dalit Buddhist movement, Ambedkarism
Awards Bharat Ratna(posthumously in 1990)
Ambedkar was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of mhow in the Central province (now in Madhya Pradesh) He was the 14th and last child of ramji maloji sakpal an army officer who held the rank of Subedar and Bhimabai Sakpal, daughter of Laxman Murbadkar.His family was of marathi background from the town of Ambadawe mandang ad taluka in Ratnagiri of odern-day Maharashtra Ambedkar was born into a poor low Mahar (dalit) caste, who were treated as untouchable and subjected to socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkar’s ancestors had long worked for the army of the British east india company and his father served in the British Indian army at the Mhow cantonment.Although they attended school, Ambedkar and other untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. When they needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the young Ambedkar by the school Peon and if the peon was not available then he had to go without water; he described the situation later in his writings as “No peon, No Water”.He was required to sit on a gunny sack which he had to take home with him.
Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the family moved to Satara. two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkar’s mother died. The children were cared for by their paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons – Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa – of the Ambedkars survived them. Of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original surname was Sakpal but his father registered his name as Ambadawekar in school, meaning he comes from his native village Ambadawe in Ratnagiri district. His devrukhe beamin teacher, Krishna Kashav Ambedkar, changed his surname from ‘Ambadawekar’ to his own surname ‘Ambedkar’ in school records.
n 1897, Ambedkar’s family moved to Mumbai where Ambedkar became the only untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone high school. In 1906, when he was about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl,
Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay
In 1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year he entered Elphinstone college which was affiliated to the University of Bombay
becoming the first untouchable to do so. In his book, The Buddha and his Dhamma, that when he passed his English fourth standard examinations, the people of his community wanted to celebrate because they considerd that he had reached “great heights” which he says was “hardly an occasion compared to the state of education in other communities”. A public ceremony was evoked, to celebrate his success, by the community, and it was at this occasion that he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author and a family friend. By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science from Bombay University, and prepared to take up employment with the Baroda state government.
Postgraduate studies at Columbia University
In October 1916, he enrolled for bar course at gray s inn and at the same time enrolled at the London School of Economics where he started working on a doctoral thesis. In June 1917, he returned to India because his scholarship from Baroda ended. His book collection was dispatched on different ship from the one he was on, and that ship was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine.He got permission to return to London to submit his thesis within four years. He returned at the first opportunity, and completed a master’s degree in 1921. His thesis was on “The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution”.In 1923, he completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and the same year he was called to the Bar by Gray’s Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (LL.D, Columbia, 1952 and D.Litt., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa
In 1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for “Depressed Classes” in the communal award Gandhi fiercely opposed a separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared that such an arrangement would divide the Hindu community. Gandhi protested by fasting while imprisoned in the. Yerwada central jail of poona .Following, Congress politicians and activists such as madan Mohan Malaviya and palwankar organised joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada. On 25 September 1932, the agreement known as Poona pactwas signed between Ambedkar (on behalf of the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan Malaviya.(on behalf of the other Hindus).
Ambedkar contested in the Bombay North first Indian General Election of 1952, but lost to his former assistant and Congress Party candidate Narayan Kajrolkar. Ambedkar became a member of Rajya Sabha, probably an appointed member. He tried to enter Lok Sabha again in the by-election of 1954 from Bhandara, but he placed third (the Congress Party won). By the time of the second general election in 1957, Ambedkar had died.
Ambedkar also criticised Islamic practice in South Asia. While justifying the partition of India he condemned child marriage and the mistreatment of women in Muslim society
Drafting India’s Constitution
Upon India’s independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first Law Minister, which he accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India’s new Constitution
You wish India should protect your borders, she should build roads in your area, she should supply you food grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India. But Government of India should have only limited powers and Indian people should have no rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this proposal, would be a treacherous thing against the interests of India and I, as the Law Minister of India, will never do it.” Then Sk. Abdullah approached Nehru, who directed him to Gopal Swami Ayyangar, who in turn approached Sardar Patel, saying Nehru had promised Sk. Abdullah the special status. Patel got the Article passed while Nehru was on a foreign
(Support to Uniform Civil Code )
“”I personally do not understand why religion should be given this vast, expansive jurisdiction, so as to cover the whole of life and to prevent the legislature from encroaching upon that field. After all, what are we having this liberty for? We are having this liberty in order to reform our social system;
Ambedkar’s first wife Ramabai died in 1935 after a long illness. After completing the draft of India’s constitution in the late 1940s, he suffered from lack of sleep, had neuropathic in his legs, and was taking insulin and homoeopathic medicines. He went to Bombay for treatment, and there met Dr. Sharada Kabir, whom he married on 15 April 1948, at his home in New Delhi. Doctors recommended a companion who was a good cook and had medical knowledge to care for him. She adopted the name Savita Ambedkar and cared for him the rest of his life.Savita Ambedkar, who was called ‘Mai’ or ‘Maisaheb’, died on 29 May 2003, aged 93 at Mehrauli, New Delhi
Conversion to Buddhism
Ambedkar considered converting to Sikhism which encouraged opposition to oppression and so appealed to leaders of scheduled castes. But after meeting with Sikh leaders, he concluded that he might get “second-rate” Sikh status, as described by scholar Stephen p cohen
Instead, he studied Buddhism all his life. Around 1950, he devoted his attention to Buddhism and travelled to (now Sri Lanka) to attend a meeting of the Would fellowship of buddhists While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near pune Ambedkar announced he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that when it was finished, he would formally convert to Buddhism. He twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon
Since 1948, Ambedkar suffered from Diabetes He was bed-ridden from June to October in 1954 due to medication side-effects and poor eyesight. He had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll on his health. His health worsened during 1955. Three days after completing his final manuscript The Buddha and his dhamma Ambedkar died in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi. A Buddhist cremation was organised at Dadar Chowpatty beach on 7 December, attended by half a million grieving people. A number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among Ambedkar’s notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India’s Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.
A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar jayanti or Bhim jayanti He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1990.